Category Archives: Trayhorn

SPILLWAY 70 Years On: 7-8 January 1944

Brig 'Trotsky' Davies (centre) with Fred Nosi (left) and Major Neil 'Billy' McLean, at Bizë October 1944

Brig ‘Trotsky’ Davies (centre) with Fred Nosi (left) and Major Neil ‘Billy’ McLean, at Bizë October 1944

We left Brigadier “Trotsky” Davies and the remnants of his SPILLWAY mission in the village of Kostenje, where he hoped to lie low and give his men time to recover from their forced march over the mountains of the Çermenika massif.

My main source both for this blog and for tracing the mission’s route on the ground has been the diary kept, against orders, by Lt Col Arthur Nicholls, which was unearthed by Dr Roderick Bailey when researching his book The Wildest Province: SOE in the Land of the Eagle, and is now held by the Imperial War Museum in London. I thought it would be interesting to throw into the mix a few pages from Enver Hoxha’s somewhat scurrilous memoir, The Anglo-American Threat to Albania (which you can find as a free PDF here; it’s actually quite a good read if you can cope with Hoxha’s verbosity and the repetition of “so-called” every other page).

It’s fair to say that Hoxha’s memoir, published in the early 1980s,  is unreliable on all sorts of levels.

After we had completed all our preparations for the march, through the snow and winter blizzard, I went to the house where the General [Brig Davies] was staying. I sat down. He offered me a cigarette and I talked to him about the plan. He was worried, kept looking at the Colonel [Nicholls] and seemed as if he wanted his permission.

«Let the Colonel decide,» he said. The Colonel was sitting on a stool.

I said with a laugh, «Whether or not the Colonel likes the idea…» And I reached over to where he was sitting and slapped him on the knee. I could not finish my sentence, because he gave a loud cry followed by a deep groan.

«Excuse me,» I said. «Did I hurt you? What’s the matter?»

«I am very ill, Mr. Hoxha,» he said. «I can’t move. I am afraid my leg is becoming gangrenous.»

«What? How is it possible, Colonel?» I said in surprise. «Why didn’t you inform me earlier, so that we could take urgent measures? General, we must save the Colonel’s life. Have we your permission to act?»

«Do you have any possibilities?» he asked me.

«Dr. Dishnica must see him in the first place, and then I think we must transfer him as quickly as possible to Tirana. We have our doctors there,» I replied.

«But is this possible?» asked the General in astonishment.

«We can get him to Tirana within a few days and the operation can be done immediately,» I said.

The Anglo-American Threat to America by Enver Hoxha

The Anglo-American Threat to America by Enver Hoxha

After consulting with Nicholls, the General told me they would be grateful if we could get this underway quickly and expressed the desire that Nicholls should be sheltered in the home of one of their men, a bey of Jella, if I am not mistaken.

«Wherever you like,» I replied, and without delay sent couriers urgently to instruct the comrades of Mat and Tirana to organize a refuge for the Colonel and the operation on him as quickly as possible. The General thanked me for our concern and the speed with which we were acting to save the Colonel and said that in these conditions he could not leave the vicinity of Tirana until the Colonel was better.

«That is understandable,» I said. «Then you shall stay with Baba Faja. He is on the way here if he hasn’t come already, and you will stay with him and his forces here, or perhaps in some other nearby zone.»

Baba Faja came and met the General. We said goodbye. I shook the General by the hand saying: «I’ll see you again in the zone of Korça,» but we never met again.

During those days a British Lieutenant called Trayhorn had surrendered to the Germans. It seems he had told them everything about the General, where he was staying and his plans. On the day after we left, January 8, the Ballists of Azis Biçaku and a platoon of German soldiers moved in on the sheepfolds of Kostenja, where the partisans with the British General and four other people were located. The partisans, led by Baba Faja, began to fight off the attacks from the four sides. Baba Faja led the fighting, directing the attacks on the enemy in order to break through the encirclement and enter a nearby forest and at the same time protected and opened the way for the General. Shouting, «Take care of the General!» Baba Faja continued to fight in the vanguard to cover their withdrawal. Nicholls and another British officer [future Financial Times chairman Captain Alan Hare] also fought together with the partisans to break through the encirclement. In the heat of the battle the partisans saw that the General was not moving. Some of them went back to get him, but to their astonishment saw that he was leaning against the trunk of a tree with a red silk sash draped across his chest and shouting and gesturing to them to go away. Meanwhile Frederik, while fighting alongside Nicholls, heard the General say to the Colonel:

«Go on, I am hit. You take charge!»

«Very good, sir, goodbye!» replied the Colonel.

A number of Ballists and Germans were killed and the firing stopped. The enemy with- drew. After the battle, the partisans discovered that the British General was missing. Exhausted, completely discouraged, he had thrown away his weapons and surrendered without firing a shot.

Next time I’ll give the British version of events…

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